Struct frame_support::pallet_prelude::PhantomData1.0.0[][src]

pub struct PhantomData<T>
where
    T: ?Sized
;
Expand description

Zero-sized type used to mark things that “act like” they own a T.

Adding a PhantomData<T> field to your type tells the compiler that your type acts as though it stores a value of type T, even though it doesn’t really. This information is used when computing certain safety properties.

For a more in-depth explanation of how to use PhantomData<T>, please see the Nomicon.

A ghastly note 👻👻👻

Though they both have scary names, PhantomData and ‘phantom types’ are related, but not identical. A phantom type parameter is simply a type parameter which is never used. In Rust, this often causes the compiler to complain, and the solution is to add a “dummy” use by way of PhantomData.

Examples

Unused lifetime parameters

Perhaps the most common use case for PhantomData is a struct that has an unused lifetime parameter, typically as part of some unsafe code. For example, here is a struct Slice that has two pointers of type *const T, presumably pointing into an array somewhere:

struct Slice<'a, T> {
    start: *const T,
    end: *const T,
}

The intention is that the underlying data is only valid for the lifetime 'a, so Slice should not outlive 'a. However, this intent is not expressed in the code, since there are no uses of the lifetime 'a and hence it is not clear what data it applies to. We can correct this by telling the compiler to act as if the Slice struct contained a reference &'a T:

use std::marker::PhantomData;

struct Slice<'a, T: 'a> {
    start: *const T,
    end: *const T,
    phantom: PhantomData<&'a T>,
}

This also in turn requires the annotation T: 'a, indicating that any references in T are valid over the lifetime 'a.

When initializing a Slice you simply provide the value PhantomData for the field phantom:

fn borrow_vec<T>(vec: &Vec<T>) -> Slice<'_, T> {
    let ptr = vec.as_ptr();
    Slice {
        start: ptr,
        end: unsafe { ptr.add(vec.len()) },
        phantom: PhantomData,
    }
}

Unused type parameters

It sometimes happens that you have unused type parameters which indicate what type of data a struct is “tied” to, even though that data is not actually found in the struct itself. Here is an example where this arises with FFI. The foreign interface uses handles of type *mut () to refer to Rust values of different types. We track the Rust type using a phantom type parameter on the struct ExternalResource which wraps a handle.

use std::marker::PhantomData;
use std::mem;

struct ExternalResource<R> {
   resource_handle: *mut (),
   resource_type: PhantomData<R>,
}

impl<R: ResType> ExternalResource<R> {
    fn new() -> Self {
        let size_of_res = mem::size_of::<R>();
        Self {
            resource_handle: foreign_lib::new(size_of_res),
            resource_type: PhantomData,
        }
    }

    fn do_stuff(&self, param: ParamType) {
        let foreign_params = convert_params(param);
        foreign_lib::do_stuff(self.resource_handle, foreign_params);
    }
}

Ownership and the drop check

Adding a field of type PhantomData<T> indicates that your type owns data of type T. This in turn implies that when your type is dropped, it may drop one or more instances of the type T. This has bearing on the Rust compiler’s drop check analysis.

If your struct does not in fact own the data of type T, it is better to use a reference type, like PhantomData<&'a T> (ideally) or PhantomData<*const T> (if no lifetime applies), so as not to indicate ownership.

Trait Implementations

Returns a copy of the value. Read more

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Attempt to deserialise the value from input.

Attempt to skip the encoded value from input. Read more

Returns the fixed encoded size of the type. Read more

Returns the “default value” for a type. Read more

Deserialize this value from the given Serde deserializer. Read more

The type produced by using this seed.

Equivalent to the more common Deserialize::deserialize method, except with some initial piece of data (the seed) passed in. Read more

Convert self to a slice and append it to the destination.

If possible give a hint of expected size of the encoding. Read more

Convert self to an owned vector.

Convert self to a slice and then invoke the given closure with it.

Calculates the encoded size. Read more

Feeds this value into the given Hasher. Read more

Feeds a slice of this type into the given Hasher. Read more

Measure the heap usage of all descendant heap-allocated structures, but not the space taken up by the value itself. If T::size_of is a constant, consider implementing constant_size as well. Read more

Used to optimize MallocSizeOf implementation for collections like Vec and HashMap to avoid iterating over them unnecessarily. The Self: Sized bound is for object safety. Read more

Upper bound, in bytes, of the maximum encoded size of this item.

This method returns an Ordering between self and other. Read more

Compares and returns the maximum of two values. Read more

Compares and returns the minimum of two values. Read more

Restrict a value to a certain interval. Read more

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more

This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more

This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more

This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more

This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more

Serialize this value into the given Serde serializer. Read more

The type identifying for which type info is provided. Read more

Returns the static type identifier for Self.

Auto Trait Implementations

Blanket Implementations

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Convert from a value of T into an equivalent instance of Option<Self>. Read more

Consume self to return Some equivalent value of Option<T>. Read more

True iff no bits are set.

Return the value of Self that is clear.

Decode Self and consume all of the given input data. Read more

Decode Self and consume all of the given input data. Read more

Decode Self and advance input by the number of bytes consumed. Read more

Decode Self with the given maximum recursion depth. Read more

Convert Box<dyn Trait> (where Trait: Downcast) to Box<dyn Any>. Box<dyn Any> can then be further downcast into Box<ConcreteType> where ConcreteType implements Trait. Read more

Convert Rc<Trait> (where Trait: Downcast) to Rc<Any>. Rc<Any> can then be further downcast into Rc<ConcreteType> where ConcreteType implements Trait. Read more

Convert &Trait (where Trait: Downcast) to &Any. This is needed since Rust cannot generate &Any’s vtable from &Trait’s. Read more

Convert &mut Trait (where Trait: Downcast) to &Any. This is needed since Rust cannot generate &mut Any’s vtable from &mut Trait’s. Read more

Convert Arc<Trait> (where Trait: Downcast) to Arc<Any>. Arc<Any> can then be further downcast into Arc<ConcreteType> where ConcreteType implements Trait. Read more

Compare self to key and return true if they are equal.

Performs the conversion.

Instruments this type with the provided Span, returning an Instrumented wrapper. Read more

Instruments this type with the current Span, returning an Instrumented wrapper. Read more

Performs the conversion.

Get a reference to the inner from the outer.

Get a mutable reference to the inner from the outer.

Return an encoding of Self prepended by given slice.

Method to launch a heapsize measurement with a fresh state. Read more

Should always be Self

Convert from a value of T into an equivalent instance of Self. Read more

Consume self to return an equivalent value of T. Read more

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.

Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (toowned_clone_into)

Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.

The counterpart to unchecked_from.

Consume self to return an equivalent value of T.

Attaches the provided Subscriber to this type, returning a WithDispatch wrapper. Read more

Attaches the current default Subscriber to this type, returning a WithDispatch wrapper. Read more