pub struct Pallet<T>(/* private fields */);
Expand description

The Pallet struct, the main type that implements traits and standalone functions within the pallet.

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impl<T: Config> Pallet<T>

A public part of the pallet.

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pub fn submit_price( origin: OriginFor<T>, price: u32 ) -> DispatchResultWithPostInfo

Submit new price to the list.

This method is a public function of the module and can be called from within a transaction. It appends given price to current list of prices. In our example the offchain worker will create, sign & submit a transaction that calls this function passing the price.

The transaction needs to be signed (see ensure_signed) check, so that the caller pays a fee to execute it. This makes sure that it’s not easy (or rather cheap) to attack the chain by submitting excessive transactions, but note that it doesn’t ensure the price oracle is actually working and receives (and provides) meaningful data. This example is not focused on correctness of the oracle itself, but rather its purpose is to showcase offchain worker capabilities.

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pub fn submit_price_unsigned( origin: OriginFor<T>, _block_number: BlockNumberFor<T>, price: u32 ) -> DispatchResultWithPostInfo

Submit new price to the list via unsigned transaction.

Works exactly like the submit_price function, but since we allow sending the transaction without a signature, and hence without paying any fees, we need a way to make sure that only some transactions are accepted. This function can be called only once every T::UnsignedInterval blocks. Transactions that call that function are de-duplicated on the pool level via validate_unsigned implementation and also are rendered invalid if the function has already been called in current “session”.

It’s important to specify weight for unsigned calls as well, because even though they don’t charge fees, we still don’t want a single block to contain unlimited number of such transactions.

This example is not focused on correctness of the oracle itself, but rather its purpose is to showcase offchain worker capabilities.

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pub fn submit_price_unsigned_with_signed_payload( origin: OriginFor<T>, price_payload: PricePayload<T::Public, BlockNumberFor<T>>, _signature: T::Signature ) -> DispatchResultWithPostInfo

Trait Implementations§

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impl<T: Config> BeforeAllRuntimeMigrations for Pallet<T>

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fn before_all_runtime_migrations() -> Weight

Something that should happen before runtime migrations are executed.
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impl<T: Config> Callable<T> for Pallet<T>

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impl<T> Clone for Pallet<T>

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fn clone(&self) -> Self

Returns a copy of the value. Read more
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fn clone_from(&mut self, source: &Self)

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more
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impl<T> Debug for Pallet<T>

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fn fmt(&self, fmt: &mut Formatter<'_>) -> Result

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
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impl<T: Config> GetStorageVersion for Pallet<T>

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type InCodeStorageVersion = NoStorageVersionSet

This type is generated by the pallet macro. Read more
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fn in_code_storage_version() -> Self::InCodeStorageVersion

Returns the in-code storage version as specified in the storage_version attribute, or [NoStorageVersionSet] if the attribute is missing.
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fn on_chain_storage_version() -> StorageVersion

Returns the storage version of the pallet as last set in the actual on-chain storage.
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fn current_storage_version() -> Self::InCodeStorageVersion

👎Deprecated: This method has been renamed to in_code_storage_version and will be removed after March 2024.
DEPRECATED: Use [Self::current_storage_version] instead. Read more
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impl<T: Config> Hooks<<<<T as Config>::Block as HeaderProvider>::HeaderT as Header>::Number> for Pallet<T>

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fn offchain_worker(block_number: BlockNumberFor<T>)

Offchain Worker entry point.

By implementing fn offchain_worker you declare a new offchain worker. This function will be called when the node is fully synced and a new best block is successfully imported. Note that it’s not guaranteed for offchain workers to run on EVERY block, there might be cases where some blocks are skipped, or for some the worker runs twice (re-orgs), so the code should be able to handle that. You can use Local Storage API to coordinate runs of the worker.

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fn on_initialize(_n: BlockNumber) -> Weight

Block initialization hook. This is called at the very beginning of block execution. Read more
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fn on_finalize(_n: BlockNumber)

Block finalization hook. This is called at the very end of block execution. Read more
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fn on_idle(_n: BlockNumber, _remaining_weight: Weight) -> Weight

Hook to consume a block’s idle time. This will run when the block is being finalized (before [Hooks::on_finalize]). Read more
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fn on_poll(_n: BlockNumber, _weight: &mut WeightMeter)

A hook to run logic after inherent application. Read more
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fn on_runtime_upgrade() -> Weight

Hook executed when a code change (aka. a “runtime upgrade”) is detected by the FRAME Executive pallet. Read more
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fn try_state(_n: BlockNumber) -> Result<(), DispatchError>

Execute the sanity checks of this pallet, per block. Read more
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fn pre_upgrade() -> Result<Vec<u8>, DispatchError>

Execute some pre-checks prior to a runtime upgrade. Read more
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fn post_upgrade(_state: Vec<u8>) -> Result<(), DispatchError>

Execute some post-checks after a runtime upgrade. Read more
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fn integrity_test()

Check the integrity of this pallet’s configuration. Read more
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impl<T: Config> IntegrityTest for Pallet<T>

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fn integrity_test()

See [Hooks::integrity_test].
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impl<T: Config> OffchainWorker<<<<T as Config>::Block as HeaderProvider>::HeaderT as Header>::Number> for Pallet<T>

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fn offchain_worker(n: BlockNumberFor<T>)

This function is being called after every block import (when fully synced). Read more
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impl<T: Config> OnFinalize<<<<T as Config>::Block as HeaderProvider>::HeaderT as Header>::Number> for Pallet<T>

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fn on_finalize(n: BlockNumberFor<T>)

See [Hooks::on_finalize].
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impl<T: Config> OnGenesis for Pallet<T>

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fn on_genesis()

Something that should happen at genesis.
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impl<T: Config> OnIdle<<<<T as Config>::Block as HeaderProvider>::HeaderT as Header>::Number> for Pallet<T>

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fn on_idle(n: BlockNumberFor<T>, remaining_weight: Weight) -> Weight

See [Hooks::on_idle].
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impl<T: Config> OnInitialize<<<<T as Config>::Block as HeaderProvider>::HeaderT as Header>::Number> for Pallet<T>

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fn on_initialize(n: BlockNumberFor<T>) -> Weight

See [Hooks::on_initialize].
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impl<T: Config> OnPoll<<<<T as Config>::Block as HeaderProvider>::HeaderT as Header>::Number> for Pallet<T>

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fn on_poll(n: BlockNumberFor<T>, weight: &mut WeightMeter)

Code to execute every now and then at the beginning of the block after inherent application. Read more
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impl<T: Config> OnRuntimeUpgrade for Pallet<T>

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fn on_runtime_upgrade() -> Weight

See [Hooks::on_runtime_upgrade].
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fn pre_upgrade() -> Result<Vec<u8>, TryRuntimeError>

See [Hooks::pre_upgrade].
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fn post_upgrade(state: Vec<u8>) -> Result<(), TryRuntimeError>

See [Hooks::post_upgrade].
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fn try_on_runtime_upgrade(checks: bool) -> Result<Weight, DispatchError>

The expected and default behavior of this method is to handle executing pre_upgrade -> on_runtime_upgrade -> post_upgrade hooks for a migration. Read more
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impl<T: Config> PalletInfoAccess for Pallet<T>

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fn index() -> usize

Index of the pallet as configured in the runtime.
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fn name() -> &'static str

Name of the pallet as configured in the runtime.
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fn name_hash() -> [u8; 16]

Two128 hash of name.
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fn module_name() -> &'static str

Name of the Rust module containing the pallet.
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fn crate_version() -> CrateVersion

Version of the crate containing the pallet.
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impl<T: Config> PalletsInfoAccess for Pallet<T>

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fn count() -> usize

The number of pallets’ information that this type represents. Read more
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fn infos() -> Vec<PalletInfoData>

All of the pallets’ information that this type represents.
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impl<T> PartialEq for Pallet<T>

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fn eq(&self, other: &Self) -> bool

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
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fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
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impl<T: Config> StorageInfoTrait for Pallet<T>

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fn storage_info() -> Vec<StorageInfo>

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impl<T: Config> TryDecodeEntireStorage for Pallet<T>

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fn try_decode_entire_state() -> Result<usize, Vec<TryDecodeEntireStorageError>>

Decode the entire data under the given storage, returning Ok(bytes_decoded) if success.
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impl<T: Config> TryState<<<<T as Config>::Block as HeaderProvider>::HeaderT as Header>::Number> for Pallet<T>

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fn try_state( n: BlockNumberFor<T>, _s: TryStateSelect ) -> Result<(), TryRuntimeError>

Execute the state checks.
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impl<T: Config> ValidateUnsigned for Pallet<T>

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fn validate_unsigned( _source: TransactionSource, call: &Self::Call ) -> TransactionValidity

Validate unsigned call to this module.

By default unsigned transactions are disallowed, but implementing the validator here we make sure that some particular calls (the ones produced by offchain worker) are being whitelisted and marked as valid.

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type Call = Call<T>

The call to validate
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fn pre_dispatch(call: &Self::Call) -> Result<(), TransactionValidityError>

Validate the call right before dispatch. Read more
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impl<T: Config> WhitelistedStorageKeys for Pallet<T>

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fn whitelisted_storage_keys() -> Vec<TrackedStorageKey>

Returns a Vec<TrackedStorageKey> indicating the storage keys that should be whitelisted during benchmarking. This means that those keys will be excluded from the benchmarking performance calculation.
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impl<T> Eq for Pallet<T>

Auto Trait Implementations§

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impl<T> RefUnwindSafe for Pallet<T>where T: RefUnwindSafe,

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impl<T> Send for Pallet<T>where T: Send,

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impl<T> Sync for Pallet<T>where T: Sync,

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impl<T> Unpin for Pallet<T>where T: Unpin,

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impl<T> UnwindSafe for Pallet<T>where T: UnwindSafe,

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impl<T> Any for Twhere T: 'static + ?Sized,

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fn type_id(&self) -> TypeId

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more
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impl<T> Borrow<T> for Twhere T: ?Sized,

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fn borrow(&self) -> &T

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
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impl<T> BorrowMut<T> for Twhere T: ?Sized,

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fn borrow_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
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impl<T> CheckedConversion for T

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fn checked_from<T>(t: T) -> Option<Self>where Self: TryFrom<T>,

Convert from a value of T into an equivalent instance of Option<Self>. Read more
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fn checked_into<T>(self) -> Option<T>where Self: TryInto<T>,

Consume self to return Some equivalent value of Option<T>. Read more
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impl<T> Conv for T

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fn conv<T>(self) -> Twhere Self: Into<T>,

Converts self into T using Into<T>. Read more
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impl<T> DynClone for Twhere T: Clone,

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fn __clone_box(&self, _: Private) -> *mut ()

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impl<Q, K> Equivalent<K> for Qwhere Q: Eq + ?Sized, K: Borrow<Q> + ?Sized,

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fn equivalent(&self, key: &K) -> bool

Compare self to key and return true if they are equal.
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impl<Q, K> Equivalent<K> for Qwhere Q: Eq + ?Sized, K: Borrow<Q> + ?Sized,

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fn equivalent(&self, key: &K) -> bool

Checks if this value is equivalent to the given key. Read more
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impl<Q, K> Equivalent<K> for Qwhere Q: Eq + ?Sized, K: Borrow<Q> + ?Sized,

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fn equivalent(&self, key: &K) -> bool

Checks if this value is equivalent to the given key. Read more
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impl<Q, K> Equivalent<K> for Qwhere Q: Eq + ?Sized, K: Borrow<Q> + ?Sized,

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fn equivalent(&self, key: &K) -> bool

Compare self to key and return true if they are equal.
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impl<T> FmtForward for T

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fn fmt_binary(self) -> FmtBinary<Self>where Self: Binary,

Causes self to use its Binary implementation when Debug-formatted.
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fn fmt_display(self) -> FmtDisplay<Self>where Self: Display,

Causes self to use its Display implementation when Debug-formatted.
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fn fmt_lower_exp(self) -> FmtLowerExp<Self>where Self: LowerExp,

Causes self to use its LowerExp implementation when Debug-formatted.
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fn fmt_lower_hex(self) -> FmtLowerHex<Self>where Self: LowerHex,

Causes self to use its LowerHex implementation when Debug-formatted.
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fn fmt_octal(self) -> FmtOctal<Self>where Self: Octal,

Causes self to use its Octal implementation when Debug-formatted.
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fn fmt_pointer(self) -> FmtPointer<Self>where Self: Pointer,

Causes self to use its Pointer implementation when Debug-formatted.
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fn fmt_upper_exp(self) -> FmtUpperExp<Self>where Self: UpperExp,

Causes self to use its UpperExp implementation when Debug-formatted.
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fn fmt_upper_hex(self) -> FmtUpperHex<Self>where Self: UpperHex,

Causes self to use its UpperHex implementation when Debug-formatted.
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fn fmt_list(self) -> FmtList<Self>where &'a Self: for<'a> IntoIterator,

Formats each item in a sequence. Read more
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impl<T> From<T> for T

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fn from(t: T) -> T

Returns the argument unchanged.

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impl<T> Instrument for T

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fn instrument(self, span: Span) -> Instrumented<Self>

Instruments this type with the provided [Span], returning an Instrumented wrapper. Read more
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fn in_current_span(self) -> Instrumented<Self>

Instruments this type with the current Span, returning an Instrumented wrapper. Read more
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impl<T, U> Into<U> for Twhere U: From<T>,

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fn into(self) -> U

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

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impl<T, U> IntoKey<U> for Twhere U: FromKey<T>,

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fn into_key(self) -> U

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impl<T> IsType<T> for T

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fn from_ref(t: &T) -> &T

Cast reference.
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fn into_ref(&self) -> &T

Cast reference.
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fn from_mut(t: &mut T) -> &mut T

Cast mutable reference.
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fn into_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T

Cast mutable reference.
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impl<T, Outer> IsWrappedBy<Outer> for Twhere Outer: AsRef<T> + AsMut<T> + From<T>, T: From<Outer>,

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fn from_ref(outer: &Outer) -> &T

Get a reference to the inner from the outer.

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fn from_mut(outer: &mut Outer) -> &mut T

Get a mutable reference to the inner from the outer.

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impl<T> Pipe for Twhere T: ?Sized,

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fn pipe<R>(self, func: impl FnOnce(Self) -> R) -> Rwhere Self: Sized,

Pipes by value. This is generally the method you want to use. Read more
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fn pipe_ref<'a, R>(&'a self, func: impl FnOnce(&'a Self) -> R) -> Rwhere R: 'a,

Borrows self and passes that borrow into the pipe function. Read more
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fn pipe_ref_mut<'a, R>(&'a mut self, func: impl FnOnce(&'a mut Self) -> R) -> Rwhere R: 'a,

Mutably borrows self and passes that borrow into the pipe function. Read more
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fn pipe_borrow<'a, B, R>(&'a self, func: impl FnOnce(&'a B) -> R) -> Rwhere Self: Borrow<B>, B: 'a + ?Sized, R: 'a,

Borrows self, then passes self.borrow() into the pipe function. Read more
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fn pipe_borrow_mut<'a, B, R>( &'a mut self, func: impl FnOnce(&'a mut B) -> R ) -> Rwhere Self: BorrowMut<B>, B: 'a + ?Sized, R: 'a,

Mutably borrows self, then passes self.borrow_mut() into the pipe function. Read more
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fn pipe_as_ref<'a, U, R>(&'a self, func: impl FnOnce(&'a U) -> R) -> Rwhere Self: AsRef<U>, U: 'a + ?Sized, R: 'a,

Borrows self, then passes self.as_ref() into the pipe function.
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fn pipe_as_mut<'a, U, R>(&'a mut self, func: impl FnOnce(&'a mut U) -> R) -> Rwhere Self: AsMut<U>, U: 'a + ?Sized, R: 'a,

Mutably borrows self, then passes self.as_mut() into the pipe function.
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fn pipe_deref<'a, T, R>(&'a self, func: impl FnOnce(&'a T) -> R) -> Rwhere Self: Deref<Target = T>, T: 'a + ?Sized, R: 'a,

Borrows self, then passes self.deref() into the pipe function.
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fn pipe_deref_mut<'a, T, R>( &'a mut self, func: impl FnOnce(&'a mut T) -> R ) -> Rwhere Self: DerefMut<Target = T> + Deref, T: 'a + ?Sized, R: 'a,

Mutably borrows self, then passes self.deref_mut() into the pipe function.
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impl<T> Pointable for T

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const ALIGN: usize = _

The alignment of pointer.
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type Init = T

The type for initializers.
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unsafe fn init(init: <T as Pointable>::Init) -> usize

Initializes a with the given initializer. Read more
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unsafe fn deref<'a>(ptr: usize) -> &'a T

Dereferences the given pointer. Read more
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unsafe fn deref_mut<'a>(ptr: usize) -> &'a mut T

Mutably dereferences the given pointer. Read more
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unsafe fn drop(ptr: usize)

Drops the object pointed to by the given pointer. Read more
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impl<T> Same for T

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type Output = T

Should always be Self
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impl<T> SaturatedConversion for T

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fn saturated_from<T>(t: T) -> Selfwhere Self: UniqueSaturatedFrom<T>,

Convert from a value of T into an equivalent instance of Self. Read more
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fn saturated_into<T>(self) -> Twhere Self: UniqueSaturatedInto<T>,

Consume self to return an equivalent value of T. Read more
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impl<T> Tap for T

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fn tap(self, func: impl FnOnce(&Self)) -> Self

Immutable access to a value. Read more
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fn tap_mut(self, func: impl FnOnce(&mut Self)) -> Self

Mutable access to a value. Read more
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fn tap_borrow<B>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&B)) -> Selfwhere Self: Borrow<B>, B: ?Sized,

Immutable access to the Borrow<B> of a value. Read more
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fn tap_borrow_mut<B>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&mut B)) -> Selfwhere Self: BorrowMut<B>, B: ?Sized,

Mutable access to the BorrowMut<B> of a value. Read more
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fn tap_ref<R>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&R)) -> Selfwhere Self: AsRef<R>, R: ?Sized,

Immutable access to the AsRef<R> view of a value. Read more
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fn tap_ref_mut<R>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&mut R)) -> Selfwhere Self: AsMut<R>, R: ?Sized,

Mutable access to the AsMut<R> view of a value. Read more
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fn tap_deref<T>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&T)) -> Selfwhere Self: Deref<Target = T>, T: ?Sized,

Immutable access to the Deref::Target of a value. Read more
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fn tap_deref_mut<T>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&mut T)) -> Selfwhere Self: DerefMut<Target = T> + Deref, T: ?Sized,

Mutable access to the Deref::Target of a value. Read more
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fn tap_dbg(self, func: impl FnOnce(&Self)) -> Self

Calls .tap() only in debug builds, and is erased in release builds.
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fn tap_mut_dbg(self, func: impl FnOnce(&mut Self)) -> Self

Calls .tap_mut() only in debug builds, and is erased in release builds.
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fn tap_borrow_dbg<B>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&B)) -> Selfwhere Self: Borrow<B>, B: ?Sized,

Calls .tap_borrow() only in debug builds, and is erased in release builds.
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fn tap_borrow_mut_dbg<B>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&mut B)) -> Selfwhere Self: BorrowMut<B>, B: ?Sized,

Calls .tap_borrow_mut() only in debug builds, and is erased in release builds.
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fn tap_ref_dbg<R>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&R)) -> Selfwhere Self: AsRef<R>, R: ?Sized,

Calls .tap_ref() only in debug builds, and is erased in release builds.
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fn tap_ref_mut_dbg<R>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&mut R)) -> Selfwhere Self: AsMut<R>, R: ?Sized,

Calls .tap_ref_mut() only in debug builds, and is erased in release builds.
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fn tap_deref_dbg<T>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&T)) -> Selfwhere Self: Deref<Target = T>, T: ?Sized,

Calls .tap_deref() only in debug builds, and is erased in release builds.
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fn tap_deref_mut_dbg<T>(self, func: impl FnOnce(&mut T)) -> Selfwhere Self: DerefMut<Target = T> + Deref, T: ?Sized,

Calls .tap_deref_mut() only in debug builds, and is erased in release builds.
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impl<T> ToOwned for Twhere T: Clone,

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type Owned = T

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.
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fn to_owned(&self) -> T

Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more
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fn clone_into(&self, target: &mut T)

Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more
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impl<T> TryConv for T

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fn try_conv<T>(self) -> Result<T, Self::Error>where Self: TryInto<T>,

Attempts to convert self into T using TryInto<T>. Read more
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impl<T, U> TryFrom<U> for Twhere U: Into<T>,

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type Error = Infallible

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
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fn try_from(value: U) -> Result<T, <T as TryFrom<U>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.
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impl<T, U> TryInto<U> for Twhere U: TryFrom<T>,

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type Error = <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
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fn try_into(self) -> Result<U, <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.
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impl<T, U> TryIntoKey<U> for Twhere U: TryFromKey<T>,

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type Error = <U as TryFromKey<T>>::Error

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fn try_into_key(self) -> Result<U, <U as TryFromKey<T>>::Error>

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impl<S, T> UncheckedInto<T> for Swhere T: UncheckedFrom<S>,

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fn unchecked_into(self) -> T

The counterpart to unchecked_from.
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impl<T, S> UniqueSaturatedInto<T> for Swhere T: Bounded, S: TryInto<T>,

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fn unique_saturated_into(self) -> T

Consume self to return an equivalent value of T.
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impl<V, T> VZip<V> for Twhere V: MultiLane<T>,

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fn vzip(self) -> V

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impl<T> WithSubscriber for T

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fn with_subscriber<S>(self, subscriber: S) -> WithDispatch<Self>where S: Into<Dispatch>,

Attaches the provided Subscriber to this type, returning a [WithDispatch] wrapper. Read more
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fn with_current_subscriber(self) -> WithDispatch<Self>

Attaches the current default Subscriber to this type, returning a [WithDispatch] wrapper. Read more
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impl<T> JsonSchemaMaybe for T

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impl<T> MaybeDebug for Twhere T: Debug,

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impl<T> MaybeRefUnwindSafe for Twhere T: RefUnwindSafe,

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impl<T> MaybeRefUnwindSafe for Twhere T: RefUnwindSafe,

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impl<T> Member for Twhere T: Send + Sync + Debug + Eq + PartialEq + Clone + 'static,