In this section we define the notions of Subsystems and Jobs. These are guidelines for how we will employ an architecture of hierarchical state machines. We'll have a top-level state machine which oversees the next level of state machines which oversee another layer of state machines and so on. The next sections will lay out these guidelines for what we've called subsystems and jobs, since this model applies to many of the tasks that the Node-side behavior needs to encompass, but these are only guidelines and some Subsystems may have deeper hierarchies internally.
Subsystems are long-lived worker tasks that are in charge of performing some particular kind of work. All subsystems can communicate with each other via a well-defined protocol. Subsystems can't generally communicate directly, but must coordinate communication through an Overseer, which is responsible for relaying messages, handling subsystem failures, and dispatching work signals.
Most work that happens on the Node-side is related to building on top of a specific relay-chain block, which is contextually known as the "relay parent". We call it the relay parent to explicitly denote that it is a block in the relay chain and not on a parachain. We refer to the parent because when we are in the process of building a new block, we don't know what that new block is going to be. The parent block is our only stable point of reference, even though it is usually only useful when it is not yet a parent but in fact a leaf of the block-DAG expected to soon become a parent (because validators are authoring on top of it). Furthermore, we are assuming a forkful blockchain-extension protocol, which means that there may be multiple possible children of the relay-parent. Even if the relay parent has multiple children blocks, the parent of those children is the same, and the context in which those children is authored should be the same. The parent block is the best and most stable reference to use for defining the scope of work items and messages, and is typically referred to by its cryptographic hash.
Since this goal of determining when to start and conclude work relative to a specific relay-parent is common to most, if not all subsystems, it is logically the job of the Overseer to distribute those signals as opposed to each subsystem duplicating that effort, potentially being out of synchronization with each other. Subsystem A should be able to expect that subsystem B is working on the same relay-parents as it is. One of the Overseer's tasks is to provide this heartbeat, or synchronized rhythm, to the system.
The work that subsystems spawn to be done on a specific relay-parent is known as a job. Subsystems should set up and tear down jobs according to the signals received from the overseer. Subsystems may share or cache state between jobs.
Subsystems must be robust to spurious exits. The outputs of the set of subsystems as a whole comprises of signed messages and data committed to disk. Care must be taken to avoid issuing messages that are not substantiated. Since subsystems need to be safe under spurious exits, it is the expected behavior that an
OverseerSignal::Conclude can just lead to breaking the loop and exiting directly as opposed to waiting for everything to shut down gracefully.
Which subsystems send messages to which other subsystems.
Note: This diagram omits the overseer for simplicity. In fact, all messages are relayed via the overseer.
Note: Messages with a filled diamond arrowhead ("♦") include a
oneshot::Sender which communicates a response from the recipient.
Messages with an open triangle arrowhead ("Δ") do not include a return sender.
Let's contextualize that diagram a bit by following a parachain block from its creation through finalization. Parachains can use completely arbitrary processes to generate blocks. The relay chain doesn't know or care about the details; each parachain just needs to provide a collator.
Note: Inter-subsystem communications are relayed via the overseer, but that step is omitted here for brevity.
Note: Dashed lines indicate a request/response cycle, where the response is communicated asynchronously via a oneshot channel. Adjacent dashed lines may be processed in parallel.
sequenceDiagram participant Overseer participant CollationGeneration participant RuntimeApi participant CollatorProtocol Overseer ->> CollationGeneration: ActiveLeavesUpdate loop for each activated head CollationGeneration -->> RuntimeApi: Request availability cores CollationGeneration -->> RuntimeApi: Request validators Note over CollationGeneration: Determine an appropriate ScheduledCore <br/>and OccupiedCoreAssumption CollationGeneration -->> RuntimeApi: Request full validation data Note over CollationGeneration: Build the collation CollationGeneration ->> CollatorProtocol: DistributeCollation end
DistributeCollation messages that
CollationGeneration sends to the
two items: a
CollatorProtocol is then responsible for distributing
that collation to interested validators. However, not all potential collations are of interest. The
CandidateSelection subsystem is responsible for determining which collations are interesting, before
CollatorProtocol actually fetches the collation.
sequenceDiagram participant CollationGeneration participant CS as CollatorProtocol::CollatorSide participant NB as NetworkBridge participant VS as CollatorProtocol::ValidatorSide participant CandidateSelection CollationGeneration ->> CS: DistributeCollation CS -->> NB: ConnectToValidators Note over CS,NB: This connects to multiple validators. CS ->> NB: Declare NB ->> VS: Declare Note over CS: Ensure that the connected validator is among<br/>the para's validator set. Otherwise, skip it. CS ->> NB: AdvertiseCollation NB ->> VS: AdvertiseCollation VS ->> CandidateSelection: Collation Note over CandidateSelection: Lots of other machinery in play here,<br/>but there are only three outcomes from the<br/>perspective of the `CollatorProtocol`: alt happy path CandidateSelection -->> VS: FetchCollation Activate VS VS ->> NB: RequestCollation NB ->> CS: RequestCollation CS ->> NB: Collation NB ->> VS: Collation Deactivate VS else collation invalid or unexpected CandidateSelection ->> VS: ReportCollator VS ->> NB: ReportPeer else CandidateSelection already selected a different candidate Note over CandidateSelection: silently drop end
Assuming we hit the happy path, flow continues with
CandidateSelection receiving a
(candidate_receipt, pov) as
the return value from its
FetchCollation request. The only time
CandidateSelection actively requests a collation is when
it hasn't yet seconded one for some
relay_parent, and is ready to second.
sequenceDiagram participant CS as CandidateSelection participant CB as CandidateBacking participant CV as CandidateValidation participant PV as Provisioner participant SD as StatementDistribution participant PD as PoVDistribution CS ->> CB: Second % fn validate_and_make_available CB -->> CV: ValidateFromChainState Note over CB,CV: There's some complication in the source, as<br/>candidates are actually validated in a separate task. alt valid Note over CB: This is where we transform the CandidateReceipt into a CommittedCandidateReceipt % CandidateBackingJob::sign_import_and_distribute_statement % CandidateBackingJob::import_statement CB ->> PV: ProvisionableData::BackedCandidate % CandidateBackingJob::issue_new_misbehaviors opt if there is misbehavior to report CB ->> PV: ProvisionableData::MisbehaviorReport end % CandidateBackingJob::distribute_signed_statement CB ->> SD: Share % CandidateBackingJob::distribute_pov CB ->> PD: DistributePoV else invalid CB ->> CS: Invalid end
At this point, you'll see that control flows in two directions: to
StatementDistribution to distribute
SignedStatement, and to
PoVDistribution to distribute the
PoV. However, that's largely a mirage:
while the initial implementation distributes
PoVs by gossip, that's inefficient, and will be replaced
with a system which fetches
PoVs only when actually necessary.
TODO: figure out more precisely the current status and plans; write them up
Therefore, we'll follow the
StatementDistribution subsystem is largely concerned
with implementing a gossip protocol:
sequenceDiagram participant SD as StatementDistribution participant NB as NetworkBridge alt On receipt of a<br/>SignedStatement from CandidateBacking % fn circulate_statement_and_dependents SD ->> NB: SendValidationMessage Note right of NB: Bridge sends validation message to all appropriate peers else On receipt of peer validation message NB ->> SD: NetworkBridgeUpdate % fn handle_incoming_message alt if we aren't already aware of the relay parent for this statement SD ->> NB: ReportPeer end % fn circulate_statement opt if we know of peers who haven't seen this message, gossip it SD ->> NB: SendValidationMessage end end
But who are these
Listeners who've asked to be notified about incoming
Nobody, as yet.
Let's pick back up with the PoV Distribution subsystem.
sequenceDiagram participant CB as CandidateBacking participant PD as PoVDistribution participant Listener participant NB as NetworkBridge CB ->> PD: DistributePoV Note over PD,Listener: Various subsystems can register listeners for when PoVs arrive loop for each Listener PD ->> Listener: Arc<PoV> end Note over PD: Gossip to connected peers PD ->> NB: SendPoV Note over PD,NB: On receipt of a network PoV, PovDistribution forwards it to each Listener.<br/>It also penalizes bad gossipers.
Unlike in the case of
StatementDistribution, there is another subsystem which in various circumstances
already registers a listener to be notified when a new
CandidateBacking. Note that this
is the second time that
CandidateBacking has gotten involved. The first instance was from the perspective
of the validator choosing to second a candidate via its
CandidateSelection subsystem. This time, it's
from the perspective of some other validator, being informed that this foreign
PoV has been received.
sequenceDiagram participant SD as StatementDistribution participant CB as CandidateBacking participant PD as PoVDistribution participant AS as AvailabilityStore SD ->> CB: Statement % CB::maybe_validate_and_import => CB::kick_off_validation_work CB -->> PD: FetchPoV Note over CB,PD: This call creates the Listener from the previous diagram CB ->> AS: StoreAvailableData
At this point, things have gone a bit nonlinear. Let's pick up the thread again with
Overseer activates each relay parent, it starts a
BitfieldSigningJob which operates on an extremely
simple metric: after creation, it immediately goes to sleep for 1.5 seconds. On waking, it records the state
of the world pertaining to availability at that moment.
sequenceDiagram participant OS as Overseer participant BS as BitfieldSigning participant RA as RuntimeApi participant AS as AvailabilityStore participant BD as BitfieldDistribution OS ->> BS: ActiveLeavesUpdate loop for each activated relay parent Note over BS: Wait 1.5 seconds BS -->> RA: Request::AvailabilityCores loop for each availability core BS -->> AS: QueryChunkAvailability end BS ->> BD: DistributeBitfield end
BitfieldDistribution is, like the other
*Distribution subsystems, primarily interested in implementing
a peer-to-peer gossip network propagating its particular messages. However, it also serves as an essential
relay passing the message along.
sequenceDiagram participant BS as BitfieldSigning participant BD as BitfieldDistribution participant NB as NetworkBridge participant PV as Provisioner BS ->> BD: DistributeBitfield BD ->> PV: ProvisionableData::Bitfield BD ->> NB: SendValidationMessage::BitfieldDistribution::Bitfield
We've now seen the message flow to the
contribute provisionable data. Now, let's look at that subsystem.
Much like the
BitfieldSigning subsystem, the
Provisioner creates a new job for each newly-activated
leaf, and starts a timer. Unlike
BitfieldSigning, we won't depict that part of the process, because
Provisioner also has other things going on.
sequenceDiagram participant A as Arbitrary participant PV as Provisioner participant CB as CandidateBacking participant BD as BitfieldDistribution participant RA as RuntimeApi participant PI as ParachainsInherentDataProvider alt receive provisionable data alt CB ->> PV: ProvisionableData else BD ->> PV: ProvisionableData end loop over stored Senders PV ->> A: ProvisionableData end Note over PV: store bitfields and backed candidates else receive request for inherent data PI ->> PV: RequestInherentData alt we have already constructed the inherent data PV ->> PI: send the inherent data else we have not yet constructed the inherent data Note over PV,PI: Store the return sender without sending immediately end else timer times out note over PV: Waited 2 seconds PV -->> RA: RuntimeApiRequest::AvailabilityCores Note over PV: construct and store the inherent data loop over stored inherent data requests PV ->> PI: (SignedAvailabilityBitfields, BackedCandidates) end end
In principle, any arbitrary subsystem could send a
RequestInherentData to the
Provisioner. In practice,
ParachainsInherentDataProvider does so.
(SignedAvailabilityBitfields, BackedCandidates, ParentHeader) is injected by the
into the inherent data. From that point on, control passes from the node to the runtime.