Dispute Coordinator

The coordinator is the central subsystem of the node-side components which participate in disputes. It wraps a database, which is used to track statements observed by all validators over some window of sessions. Votes older than this session window are pruned.

In particular the dispute-coordinator is responsible for:

  • Ensuring that the node is able to raise a dispute in case an invalid candidate is found during approval checking.
  • Ensuring that backing and approval votes will be recorded on chain. With these votes on chain we can be certain that appropriate targets for slashing will be available for concluded disputes. Also, scraping these votes during a dispute is necessary for critical spam prevention measures.
  • Ensuring backing votes will never get overridden by explicit votes.
  • Coordinating actual participation in a dispute, ensuring that the node participates in any justified dispute in a way that ensures resolution of disputes on the network even in the case of many disputes raised (flood/DoS scenario).
  • Ensuring disabled validators are not able to spam disputes.
  • Ensuring disputes resolve, even for candidates on abandoned forks as much as reasonably possible, to rule out "free tries" and thus guarantee our gambler's ruin property.
  • Providing an API for chain selection, so we can prevent finalization of any chain which has included candidates for which a dispute is either ongoing or concluded invalid and avoid building on chains with an included invalid candidate.
  • Providing an API for retrieving (resolved) disputes, including all votes, both implicit (approval, backing) and explicit dispute votes. So validators can get rewarded/slashed accordingly.

Ensuring That Disputes Can Be Raised

If a candidate turns out invalid in approval checking, the approval-voting subsystem will try to issue a dispute. For this, it will send a message DisputeCoordinatorMessage::IssueLocalStatement to the dispute coordinator, indicating to cast an explicit invalid vote. It is the responsibility of the dispute coordinator on reception of such a message to create and sign that explicit invalid vote and trigger a dispute if none for that candidate is already ongoing.

In order to raise a dispute, a node has to be able to provide two opposing votes. Given that the reason of the backing phase is to have validators with skin in the game, the opposing valid vote will very likely be a backing vote. It could also be some already cast approval vote, but the significant point here is: As long as we have backing votes available, any node will be able to raise a dispute.

Therefore a vital responsibility of the dispute coordinator is to make sure backing votes are available for all candidates that might still get disputed. To accomplish this task in an efficient way the dispute-coordinator relies on chain scraping. Whenever a candidate gets backed on chain, we record in chain storage the backing votes imported in that block. This way, given the chain state for a given relay chain block, we can retrieve via a provided runtime API the backing votes imported by that block. The dispute coordinator makes sure to query those votes for any non finalized blocks: In case of missed blocks, it will do chain traversal as necessary.

Relying on chain scraping is very efficient for two reasons:

  1. Votes are already batched. We import all available backing votes for a candidate all at once. If instead we imported votes from candidate-backing as they came along, we would import each vote individually which is inefficient in the current dispute coordinator implementation (quadratic complexity).
  2. We also import less votes in total, as we avoid importing statements for candidates that never got successfully backed on any chain.

It also is secure, because disputes are only ever raised in the approval voting phase. A node only starts the approval process after it has seen a candidate included on some chain, for that to happen it must have been backed previously. Therefore backing votes are available at that point in time. Signals are processed first, so even if a block is skipped and we only start importing backing votes on the including block, we will have seen the backing votes by the time we process messages from approval voting.

In summary, for making it possible for a dispute to be raised, recording of backing votes from chain is sufficient and efficient. In particular there is no need to preemptively import approval votes, which has shown to be a very inefficient process. (Quadratic complexity adds up, with 35 votes in total per candidate)

Approval votes are very relevant nonetheless as we are going to see in the next section.

Ensuring approval votes will be recorded

Ensuring Recording

Only votes recorded by the dispute coordinator will be considered for slashing.

While there is no need to record approval votes in the dispute coordinator preemptively, we make some effort to have any in approval-voting received approval votes recorded when a dispute actually happens:

This is not required for concluding the dispute, as nodes send their own vote anyway (either explicit valid or their existing approval-vote). What nodes can do though, is participating in approval-voting, casting a vote, but later when a dispute is raised reconsider their vote and send an explicit invalid vote. If they managed to only have that one recorded, then they could avoid a slash.

This is not a problem for our basic security assumptions: The backers are the ones to be supposed to have skin in the game, so we are not too worried about colluding approval voters getting away slash free as the gambler's ruin property is maintained anyway. There is however a separate problem, from colluding approval-voters, that is "lazy" approval voters. If it were easy and reliable for approval-voters to reconsider their vote, in case of an actual dispute, then they don't have a direct incentive (apart from playing a part in securing the network) to properly run the validation function at all - they could just always vote "valid" totally risk free. (While they would always risk a slash by voting invalid.)

So we do want to fetch approval votes from approval-voting. Importing votes is most efficient when batched. At the same time approval voting and disputes are running concurrently so approval votes are expected to trickle in still, when a dispute is already ongoing.

Hence, we have the following requirements for importing approval votes:

  1. Only import them when there is a dispute, because otherwise we are wasting lots of resources always for the exceptional case of a dispute.
  2. Import votes batched when possible, to avoid quadratic import complexity.
  3. Take into account that approval voting is still ongoing, while a dispute is already running.

With a design where approval voting sends votes to the dispute-coordinator by itself, we would need to make approval voting aware of ongoing disputes and once it is aware it could start sending all already existing votes batched and trickling in votes as they come. The problem with this is, that it adds some unnecessary complexity to approval-voting and also we might still import most of the votes unbatched one-by-one, depending on what point in time the dispute was raised.

Instead of the dispute coordinator informing approval-voting of an ongoing dispute for it to begin forwarding votes to the dispute coordinator, it makes more sense for the dispute-coordinator to just ask approval-voting for votes of candidates in dispute. This way, the dispute coordinator can also pick the best time for maximizing the number of votes in the batch.

Now the question remains, when should the dispute coordinator ask approval-voting for votes?

In fact for slashing it is only relevant to have them once the dispute concluded, so we can query approval voting the moment the dispute concludes! Two concerns that come to mind, are easily addressed:

  1. Timing: We would like to rely as little as possible on implementation details of approval voting. In particular, if the dispute is ongoing for a long time, do we have any guarantees that approval votes are kept around long enough by approval voting? Will approval votes still be present by the time the dispute concludes in all cases? The answer is nuanced, but in general we cannot rely on it. The problem is first, that finalization and approval-voting is an off-chain process so there is no global consensus: As soon as at least f+1 honest (f=n/3, where n is the number of validators/nodes) nodes have seen the dispute conclude, finalization will take place and approval votes will be cleared. This would still be fine, if we had some guarantees that those honest nodes will be able to include those votes in a block. This guarantee does not exist unfortunately, we will discuss the problem and solutions in more detail [below][#Ensuring Chain Import].

    The second problem is that approval-voting will abandon votes as soon as a chain can no longer be finalized (some other/better fork already has been). This second problem can somehow be mitigated by also importing votes as soon as a dispute is detected, but not fully resolved. It is still inherently racy. The good thing is, this should be good enough: We are worried about lazy approval checkers, the system does not need to be perfect. It should be enough if there is some risk of getting caught.

  2. We are not worried about the dispute not concluding, as nodes will always send their own vote, regardless of it being an explicit or an already existing approval-vote.

Conclusion: As long as we make sure, if our own approval vote gets imported (which would prevent dispute participation) to also distribute it via dispute-distribution, disputes can conclude. To mitigate raciness with approval-voting deleting votes we will import approval votes twice during a dispute: Once when it is raised, to make as sure as possible to see approval votes also for abandoned forks and second when the dispute concludes, to maximize the amount of potentially malicious approval votes to be recorded. The raciness obviously is not fully resolved by this, but this is fine as argued above.

Ensuring vote import on chain is covered in the next section.

What we don't care about is that honest approval-voters will likely validate twice, once in approval voting and once via dispute-participation. Avoiding that does not really seem worthwhile though, as disputes are for one exceptional, so a little wasted effort won't affect everyday performance - second, even with eager importing of approval votes, those doubled work is still present as disputes and approvals are racing. Every time participation is faster than approval, a node would do double work.

Ensuring Chain Import

While in the previous section we discussed means for nodes to ensure relevant votes are recorded so lazy approval checkers get slashed properly, it is crucial to also discuss the actual chain import. Only if we guarantee that recorded votes will get imported on chain (on all potential chains really) we will succeed in executing slashes. Particularly we need to make sure backing votes end up on chain consistently.

Dispute distribution will make sure all explicit dispute votes get distributed among nodes which includes current block producers (current authority set) which is an important property: If the dispute carries on across an era change, we need to ensure that the new validator set will learn about any disputes and their votes, so they can put that information on chain. Dispute-distribution luckily has this property and always sends votes to the current authority set. The issue is, for dispute-distribution, nodes send only their own explicit (or in some cases their approval vote) in addition to some opposing vote. This guarantees that at least some backing or approval vote will be present at the block producer, but we don't have a 100% guarantee to have votes for all backers, even less for approval checkers.

Reason for backing votes: While backing votes will be present on at least some chain, that does not mean that any such chain is still considered for block production in the current set - they might only exist on an already abandoned fork. This means a block producer that just joined the set, might not have seen any of them.

For approvals it is even more tricky and less necessary: Approval voting together with finalization is a completely off-chain process therefore those protocols don't care about block production at all. Approval votes only have a guarantee of being propagated between the nodes that are responsible for finalizing the concerned blocks. This implies that on an era change the current authority set, will not necessarily get informed about any approval votes for the previous era. Hence even if all validators of the previous era successfully recorded all approval votes in the dispute coordinator, they won't get a chance to put them on chain, hence they won't be considered for slashing.

It is important to note, that the essential properties of the system still hold: Dispute-distribution will distribute at least one "valid" vote to the current authority set, hence at least one node will get slashed in case of outcome "invalid". Also in reality the validator set is rarely exchanged 100%, therefore in practice some validators in the current authority set will overlap with the ones in the previous set and will be able to record votes on chain.

Still, for maximum accountability we need to make sure a previous authority set can communicate votes to the next one, regardless of any chain: This is yet to be implemented see section "Resiliency" in dispute-distribution and this ticket.

Coordinating Actual Dispute Participation

Once the dispute coordinator learns about a dispute, it is its responsibility to make sure the local node participates in that dispute.

The dispute coordinator learns about a dispute by importing votes from either chain scraping or from dispute-distribution. If it finds opposing votes (always the case when coming from dispute-distribution), it records the presence of a dispute. Then, in case it does not find any local vote for that dispute already, it needs to trigger participation in the dispute (see previous section for considerations when the found local vote is an approval vote).

Participation means, recovering availability and re-evaluating the POV. The result of that validation (either valid or invalid) will be the node's vote on that dispute: Either explicit "invalid" or "valid". The dispute coordinator will inform dispute-distribution about our vote and dispute-distribution will make sure that our vote gets distributed to all other validators.

Nothing ever is that easy though. We can not blindly import anything that comes along and trigger participation no matter what.

Spam Considerations

In Polkadot's security model, it is important that attempts to attack the system result in a slash of the offenders. Therefore we need to make sure that this slash is actually happening. Attackers could try to prevent the slashing from taking place, by overwhelming validators with disputes in such a way that no single dispute ever concludes, because nodes are busy processing newly incoming ones. Other attacks are imaginable as well, like raising disputes for candidates that don't exist, just filling up everyone's disk slowly or worse making nodes try to participate, which will result in lots of network requests for recovering availability.

The last point brings up a significant consideration in general: Disputes are about escalation: Every node will suddenly want to check, instead of only a few. A single message will trigger the whole network to start significant amount of work and will cause lots of network traffic and messages. Hence the dispute system is very susceptible to being a brutal amplifier for DoS attacks, resulting in DoS attacks to become very easy and cheap, if we are not careful.

One counter measure we are taking is making raising of disputes a costly thing: If you raise a dispute, because you claim a candidate is invalid, although it is in fact valid - you will get slashed, hence you pay for consuming those resources. The issue is: This only works if the dispute concerns a candidate that actually exists!

If a node raises a dispute for a candidate that never got included (became available) on any chain, then the dispute can never conclude, hence nobody gets slashed. It makes sense to point out that this is less bad than it might sound at first, as trying to participate in a dispute for a non existing candidate is "relatively" cheap. Each node will send out a few hundred tiny request messages for availability chunks, which all will end up in a tiny response "NoSuchChunk" and then no participation will actually happen as there is nothing to participate. Malicious nodes could provide chunks, which would make things more costly, but at the full expense of the attackers bandwidth - no amplification here. I am bringing that up for completeness only: Triggering a thousand nodes to send out a thousand tiny network messages by just sending out a single garbage message, is still a significant amplification and is nothing to ignore - this could absolutely be used to cause harm!


As explained, just blindly participating in any "dispute" that comes along is not a good idea. First we would like to make sure the dispute is actually genuine, to prevent cheap DoS attacks. Secondly, in case of genuine disputes, we would like to conclude one after the other, in contrast to processing all at the same time, slowing down progress on all of them, bringing individual processing to a complete halt in the worst case (nodes get overwhelmed at some stage in the pipeline).

To ensure to only spend significant work on genuine disputes, we only trigger participation at all on any vote import if any of the following holds true:

  • We saw the disputed candidate included in some not yet finalized block on at least one fork of the chain.
  • We have seen the disputed candidate backed in some not yet finalized block on at least one fork of the chain. This ensures the candidate is at least not completely made up and there has been some effort already flown into that candidate. Generally speaking a dispute shouldn't be raised for a candidate which is backed but is not yet included. Disputes are raised during approval checking. We participate on such disputes as a precaution - maybe we haven't seen the CandidateIncluded event yet?
  • The dispute is already confirmed: Meaning that 1/3+1 nodes already participated, as this suggests in our threat model that there was at least one honest node that already voted, so the dispute must be genuine.

In addition to that, we only participate in a non-confirmed dispute if at least one vote against the candidate is from a non-disabled validator.

Note: A node might be out of sync with the chain and we might only learn about a block, including a candidate, after we learned about the dispute. This means, we have to re-evaluate participation decisions on block import!

With this, nodes won't waste significant resources on completely made up candidates. The next step is to process dispute participation in a (globally) ordered fashion. Meaning a majority of validators should arrive at at least roughly at the same ordering of participation, for disputes to get resolved one after another. This order is only relevant if there are lots of disputes, so we obviously only need to worry about order if participations start queuing up.

We treat participation for candidates that we have seen included with priority and put them on a priority queue which sorts participation based on the block number of the relay parent of the candidate and for candidates with the same relay parent height further by the CandidateHash. This ordering is globally unique and also prioritizes older candidates.

The latter property makes sense, because if an older candidate turns out invalid, we can roll back the full chain at once. If we resolved earlier disputes first and they turned out invalid as well, we might need to roll back a couple of times instead of just once to the oldest offender. This is obviously a good idea, in particular it makes it impossible for an attacker to prevent rolling back a very old candidate, by keeping raising disputes for newer candidates.

For candidates we have not seen included, but we know are backed (thanks to chain scraping) or we have seen a dispute with 1/3+1 participation (confirmed dispute) on them - we put participation on a best-effort queue. It has got the same ordering as the priority one - by block heights of the relay parent, older blocks are with priority. There is a possibility not to be able to obtain the block number of the parent when we are inserting the dispute in the queue. To account for races, we will promote any existing participation request to the priority queue once we learn about an including block. NOTE: this is still work in progress and is tracked by this issue.

Abandoned Forks

Finalization: As mentioned we care about included and backed candidates on any non-finalized chain, given that any disputed chain will not get finalized, we don't need to care about finalized blocks, but what about forks that fall behind the finalized chain in terms of block number? For those we would still like to be able to participate in any raised disputes, otherwise attackers might be able to avoid a slash if they manage to create a better fork after they learned about the approval checkers. Therefore we do care about those forks even after they have fallen behind the finalized chain.

For simplicity we also care about the actual finalized chain (not just forks) up to a certain depth. We do have to limit the depth, because otherwise we open a DoS vector again. The depth (into the finalized chain) should be oriented on the approval-voting execution timeout, in particular it should be significantly larger. Otherwise by the time the execution is allowed to finish, we already dropped information about those candidates and the dispute could not conclude.


Spam Considerations

In the last section we looked at how to treat queuing participations to handle heavy dispute load well. This already ensures, that honest nodes won't amplify cheap DoS attacks. There is one minor issue remaining: Even if we delay participation until we have some confirmation of the authenticity of the dispute, we should also not blindly import all votes arriving into the database as this might be used to just slowly fill up disk space, until the node is no longer functional. This leads to our last protection mechanism at the dispute coordinator level (dispute-distribution also has its own), which is spam slots. For each import containing an invalid vote, where we don't know whether it might be spam or not we increment a counter for each signing participant of explicit invalid votes.

What votes do we treat as a potential spam? A vote will increase a spam slot if and only if all of the following conditions are satisfied:

  • the candidate under dispute was not seen included nor backed on any chain
  • the dispute is not confirmed
  • we haven't cast a vote for the dispute
  • at least one vote against the candidate is from a non-disabled validator

Whenever any vote on a dispute is imported these conditions are checked. If the dispute is found not to be potential spam, then spam slots for the disputed candidate hash are cleared. This decrements the spam count for every validator which had voted invalid.

To keep spam slots from filling up unnecessarily we want to clear spam slots whenever a candidate is seen to be backed or included. Fortunately this behavior is achieved by clearing slots on vote import as described above. Because on chain backing votes are processed when a block backing the disputed candidate is discovered, spam slots are cleared for every backed candidate. Included candidates have also been seen as backed on the same fork, so decrementing spam slots is handled in that case as well.

The reason this works is because we only need to worry about actual dispute votes. Import of backing votes are already rate limited and concern only real candidates. For approval votes a similar argument holds (if they come from approval-voting), but we also don't import them until a dispute already concluded. For actual dispute votes we need two opposing votes, so there must be an explicit invalid vote in the import. Only a third of the validators can be malicious, so spam disk usage is limited to 2*vote_size*n/3*NUM_SPAM_SLOTS, with n being the number of validators.


Once a validator has committed an offence (e.g. losing a dispute), it is considered disabled for the rest of the era. In addition to using the on-chain state of disabled validators, we also keep track of validators who lost a dispute off-chain. The reason for this is a dispute can be raised for a candidate in a previous era, which means that a validator that is going to be slashed for it might not even be in the current active set. That means it can't be disabled on-chain. We need a way to prevent someone from disputing all valid candidates in the previous era. We do this by keeping track of the validators who lost a dispute in the past few sessions and use that list in addition to the on-chain disabled validators state. In addition to past session misbehavior, this also helps in case a slash is delayed.

When we receive a dispute statements set, we do the following:

  1. Take the on-chain state of disabled validators at the relay parent block.
  2. Take a list of those who lost a dispute in that session in the order that prioritizes the biggest and newest offence.
  3. Combine the two lists and take the first byzantine threshold validators from it.
  4. If the dispute is unconfirmed, check if all votes against the candidate are from disabled validators. If so, we don't participate in the dispute, but record the votes.

Backing Votes

Backing votes are in some way special. For starters they are the only valid votes that are guaranteed to exist for any valid dispute to be raised. Second they are the only votes that commit to a shorter execution timeout BACKING_EXECUTION_TIMEOUT, compared to a more lenient timeout used in approval voting. To account properly for execution time variance across machines, slashing might treat backing votes differently (more aggressively) than other voting valid votes. Hence in import we shall never override a backing vote with another valid vote. They can not be assumed to be interchangeable.

Attacks & Considerations

The following attacks on the priority queue and best-effort queues are considered in above design.

Priority Queue

On the priority queue, we will only queue participations for candidates we have seen included on any chain. Any attack attempt would start with a candidate included on some chain, but an attacker could try to only reveal the including relay chain blocks to just some honest validators and stop as soon as it learns that some honest validator would have a relevant approval assignment.

Without revealing the including block to any honest validator, we don't really have an attack yet. Once the block is revealed though, the above is actually very hard. Each honest validator will re-distribute the block it just learned about. This means an attacker would need to pull of a targeted DoS attack, which allows the validator to send its assignment, but prevents it from forwarding and sharing the relay chain block.

This sounds already hard enough, provided that we also start participation if we learned about an including block after the dispute has been raised already (we need to update participation queues on new leaves), but to be even safer we choose to have an additional best-effort queue.

Best-Effort Queue

While attacking the priority queue is already pretty hard, attacking the best-effort queue is even harder. For a candidate to be a threat, it has to be included on some chain. For it to be included, it has to have been backed before and at least n/3 honest nodes must have seen that block, so availability (inclusion) can be reached. Making a full third of the nodes not further propagate a block, while at the same time allowing them to fetch chunks, sign and distribute bitfields seems almost infeasible and even if accomplished, those nodes would be enough to confirm a dispute and we have not even touched the above fact that in addition, for an attack, the following including block must be shared with honest validators as well.

It is worth mentioning that a successful attack on the priority queue as outlined above is already outside of our threat model, as it assumes n/3 malicious nodes + additionally malfunctioning/DoSed nodes. Even more so for attacks on the best-effort queue, as our threat model only allows for n/3 malicious or malfunctioning nodes in total. It would therefore be a valid decision to ditch the best-effort queue, if it proves to become a burden or creates other issues.

One issue we should not be worried about though is spam. For abusing best-effort for spam, the following scenario would be necessary:

An attacker controls a backing group: The attacker can then have candidates backed and choose to not provide chunks. This should come at a cost to miss out on rewards for backing, so is not free. At the same time it is rate limited, as a backing group can only back so many candidates legitimately. (~ 1 per slot):

  1. They have to wait until a malicious actor becomes block producer (for causing additional forks via equivocation for example).
  2. Forks are possible, but if caused by equivocation also not free.
  3. For each fork the attacker has to wait until the candidate times out, for backing another one.

Assuming there can only be a handful of forks, 2) together with 3) the candidate timeout restriction, frequency should indeed be in the ballpark of once per slot. Scaling linearly in the number of controlled backing groups, so two groups would mean 2 backings per slot, ...

So by this reasoning an attacker could only do very limited harm and at the same time will have to pay some price for it (it will miss out on rewards). Overall the work done by the network might even be in the same ballpark as if actors just behaved honestly:

  1. Validators would have fetched chunks
  2. Approval checkers would have done approval checks

While because of the attack (backing, not providing chunks and afterwards disputing the candidate), the work for 1000 validators would be:

All validators sending out ~ 1000 tiny requests over already established connections, with also tiny (byte) responses.

This means around a million requests, while in the honest case it would be ~ 10000 (30 approval checkers x330) - where each request triggers a response in the range of kilobytes. Hence network load alone will likely be higher in the honest case than in the DoS attempt case, which would mean the DoS attempt actually reduces load, while also costing rewards.

In the worst case this can happen multiple times, as we would retry that on every vote import. The effect would still be in the same ballpark as honest behavior though and can also be mitigated by chilling repeated availability recovery requests for example.

Out of Scope

No Disputes for Non Included Candidates

We only ever care about disputes for candidates that have been included on at least some chain (became available). This is because the availability system was designed for precisely that: Only with inclusion (availability) we have guarantees about the candidate to actually be available. Because only then we have guarantees that malicious backers can be reliably checked and slashed. Also, by design non included candidates do not pose any threat to the system.

One could think of an (additional) dispute system to make it possible to dispute any candidate that has been proposed by a validator, no matter whether it got successfully included or even backed. Unfortunately, it would be very brittle (no availability) and also spam protection would be way harder than for the disputes handled by the dispute-coordinator. In fact, all the spam handling strategies described above would simply be unavailable.

It is worth thinking about who could actually raise such disputes anyway: Approval checkers certainly not, as they will only ever check once availability succeeded. The only other nodes that meaningfully could/would are honest backing nodes or collators. For collators spam considerations would be even worse as there can be an unlimited number of them and we can not charge them for spam, so trying to handle disputes raised by collators would be even more complex. For honest backers: It actually makes more sense for them to wait until availability is reached as well, as only then they have guarantees that other nodes will be able to check. If they disputed before, all nodes would need to recover the data from them, so they would be an easy DoS target.

In summary: The availability system was designed for raising disputes in a meaningful and secure way after availability was reached. Trying to raise disputes before does not meaningfully contribute to the systems security/might even weaken it as attackers are warned before availability is reached, while at the same time adding significant amount of complexity. We therefore punt on such disputes and concentrate on disputes the system was designed to handle.

No Disputes for Already Finalized Blocks

Note that by above rules in the Participation section, we will not participate in disputes concerning a candidate in an already finalized block. This is because, disputing an already finalized block is simply too late and therefore of little value. Once finalized, bridges have already processed the block for example, so we have to assume the damage is already done. Governance has to step in and fix what can be fixed.

Making disputes for already finalized blocks possible would only provide two features:

  1. We can at least still slash attackers.
  2. We can freeze the chain to some governance only mode, in an attempt to minimize potential harm done.

Both seem kind of worthwhile, although as argued above, it is likely that there is not too much that can be done in 2 and we would likely only ending up DoSing the whole system without much we can do. 1 can also be achieved via governance mechanisms.

In any case, our focus should be making as sure as reasonably possible that any potentially invalid block does not get finalized in the first place. Not allowing disputing already finalized blocks actually helps a great deal with this goal as it massively reduces the amount of candidates that can be disputed.

This makes attempts to overwhelm the system with disputes significantly harder and counter measures way easier. We can limit inclusion for example (as suggested here in case of high dispute load. Another measure we have at our disposal is that on finality lag block production will slow down, implicitly reducing the rate of new candidates that can be disputed. Hence, the cutting-off of the unlimited candidate supply of already finalized blocks, guarantees the necessary DoS protection and ensures we can have measures in place to keep up with processing of disputes.

If we allowed participation for disputes for already finalized candidates, the above spam protection mechanisms would be insufficient/relying 100% on full and quick disabling of spamming validators.

Database Schema

We use an underlying Key-Value database where we assume we have the following operations available:

  • write(key, value)
  • read(key) -> Option<value>
  • iter_with_prefix(prefix) -> Iterator<(key, value)> - gives all keys and values in lexicographical order where the key starts with prefix.

We use this database to encode the following schema:

fn main() {
("candidate-votes", SessionIndex, CandidateHash) -> Option<CandidateVotes>
"recent-disputes" -> RecentDisputes
"earliest-session" -> Option<SessionIndex>

The meta information that we track per-candidate is defined as the CandidateVotes struct. This draws on the dispute statement types

fn main() {
/// Tracked votes on candidates, for the purposes of dispute resolution.
pub struct CandidateVotes {
  /// The receipt of the candidate itself.
  pub candidate_receipt: CandidateReceipt,
  /// Votes of validity, sorted by validator index.
  pub valid: Vec<(ValidDisputeStatementKind, ValidatorIndex, ValidatorSignature)>,
  /// Votes of invalidity, sorted by validator index.
  pub invalid: Vec<(InvalidDisputeStatementKind, ValidatorIndex, ValidatorSignature)>,

/// The mapping for recent disputes; any which have not yet been pruned for being ancient.
pub type RecentDisputes = std::collections::BTreeMap<(SessionIndex, CandidateHash), DisputeStatus>;

/// The status of dispute. This is a state machine which can be altered by the
/// helper methods.
pub enum DisputeStatus {
  /// The dispute is active and unconcluded.
  /// The dispute has been concluded in favor of the candidate
  /// since the given timestamp.
  /// The dispute has been concluded against the candidate
  /// since the given timestamp.
  /// This takes precedence over `ConcludedFor` in the case that
  /// both are true, which is impossible unless a large amount of
  /// validators are participating on both sides.
  /// Dispute has been confirmed (more than `byzantine_threshold` have already participated/ or
  /// we have seen the candidate included already/participated successfully ourselves).


Input: DisputeCoordinatorMessage



This assumes a constant DISPUTE_WINDOW: SessionWindowSize. This should correspond to at least 1 day.

Ephemeral in-memory state:

fn main() {
struct State {
  keystore: Arc<LocalKeystore>,
  rolling_session_window: RollingSessionWindow,
  highest_session: SessionIndex,
  spam_slots: SpamSlots,
  participation: Participation,
  ordering_provider: OrderingProvider,
  participation_receiver: WorkerMessageReceiver,
  metrics: Metrics,
  // This tracks only rolling session window failures.
  // It can be a `Vec` if the need to track more arises.
  error: Option<SessionsUnavailable>,
  /// Latest relay blocks that have been successfully scraped.
  last_scraped_blocks: LruMap<Hash, ()>,

On startup

When the subsystem is initialised it waits for a new leaf (message OverseerSignal::ActiveLeaves). The leaf is used to initialise a RollingSessionWindow instance (contains leaf hash and DISPUTE_WINDOW which is a constant).

Next the active disputes are loaded from the DB and initialize spam slots accordingly, then for each loaded dispute, we either send a DisputeDistribution::SendDispute if there is a local vote from us available or if there is none and participation is in order, we push the dispute to participation.

The main loop

Just after the subsystem initialisation the main loop (fn run_until_error()) runs until OverseerSignal::Conclude signal is received. Before executing the actual main loop the leaf and the participations, obtained during startup are enqueued for processing. If there is capacity (the number of running participations is less than MAX_PARALLEL_PARTICIPATIONS) participation jobs are started (func participate). Finally the component waits for messages from Overseer. The behaviour on each message is described in the following subsections.

On OverseerSignal::ActiveLeaves

Initiates processing via the Participation module and updates the internal state of the subsystem. More concretely:

  • Passes the ActiveLeavesUpdate message to the ordering provider.
  • Updates the session info cache.
  • Updates self.highest_session.
  • Prunes old spam slots in case the session window has advanced.
  • Scrapes on chain votes.

On MuxedMessage::Participation

This message is sent from Participation module and indicates a processed dispute participation. It's the result of the processing job initiated with OverseerSignal::ActiveLeaves. The subsystem issues a DisputeMessage with the result.

On OverseerSignal::Conclude

Exit gracefully.

On OverseerSignal::BlockFinalized

Performs cleanup of the finalized candidate.

On DisputeCoordinatorMessage::ImportStatements

Import statements by validators are processed in fn handle_import_statements(). The function has got three main responsibilities:

  • Initiate participation in disputes and sending out of any existing own approval vote in case of a raised dispute.
  • Persist all fresh votes in the database. Fresh votes in this context means votes that are not already processed by the node.
  • Spam protection on all invalid (DisputeStatement::Invalid) votes. Please check the SpamSlots section for details on how spam protection works.

On DisputeCoordinatorMessage::RecentDisputes

Returns all recent disputes saved in the DB.

On DisputeCoordinatorMessage::ActiveDisputes

Returns all recent disputes concluded within the last ACTIVE_DURATION_SECS .

On DisputeCoordinatorMessage::QueryCandidateVotes

Loads candidate-votes for every (SessionIndex, CandidateHash) in the input query and returns data within each CandidateVote. If a particular candidate-vote is missing, that particular request is omitted from the response.

On DisputeCoordinatorMessage::IssueLocalStatement

Executes fn issue_local_statement() which performs the following operations:

  • Deconstruct into parts { session_index, candidate_hash, candidate_receipt, is_valid }.
  • Construct a DisputeStatement based on Valid or Invalid, depending on the parameterization of this routine.
  • Sign the statement with each key in the SessionInfo's list of parachain validation keys which is present in the keystore, except those whose indices appear in voted_indices. This will typically just be one key, but this does provide some future-proofing for situations where the same node may run on behalf multiple validators. At the time of writing, this is not a use-case we support as other subsystems do not invariably provide this guarantee.
  • Write statement to DB.
  • Send a DisputeDistributionMessage::SendDispute message to get the vote distributed to other validators.

On DisputeCoordinatorMessage::DetermineUndisputedChain

Executes fn determine_undisputed_chain() which performs the following:

  • Load "recent-disputes".
  • Deconstruct into parts { base_number, block_descriptions, rx }
  • Starting from the beginning of block_descriptions:
    1. Check the RecentDisputes for a dispute of each candidate in the block description.
    2. If there is a dispute which is active or concluded negative, exit the loop.
  • For the highest index i reached in the block_descriptions, send (base_number + i + 1, block_hash) on the channel, unless i is 0, in which case None should be sent. The block_hash is determined by inspecting block_descriptions[i].